The Index was taken up and further developed by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and was first brought out in 2006 with the Welthungerhilfe, a German non-profit organization (NPO). The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. The GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger. By raising awareness and understanding of regional and country differences in hunger, the GHI aims to trigger actions to reduce hunger.
GHI considers four parameters for ranking countries:
Undernourishment: share of the undernourished population, reflecting insufficient caloric intake;
Child wasting: share of children under the age of five who suffer from wasting (low weight-for-height), reflecting acute under-nutrition;
Child stunting: share of children under the age of five who suffer from stunted growth (low height-for-age), reflecting chronic under-nutrition; and
Child mortality: mortality rate of children under age five.
The 2017 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report—the twelfth in an annual series—presents a multidimensional measure of national, regional, and global hunger. It shows that the world has made progress in reducing hunger since 2000, but that the progress has been uneven, and may now be threatened. This year's report finds several countries have higher hunger levels in 2017 than they did in 2008, indicating that progress in reducing hunger over recent decades is reversing more recently in some places.
In addition to the ranking, the Global Hunger Index report every year focuses on the main topic: in 2017 the thematic focus is on inequality and hunger.
In relation to INDIA
India is a country of stark contrasts. In total, 22% of its population lives below the poverty line (Government of India 2013). At the same time, it is home to 84 of the world’s billionaires (Forbes 2016).
India’s top 1% own more than 50% of the country’s wealth. It is the world’s second-largest food producer and yet is also home to the second-highest population of undernourished people in the world
One side of this story is clear from the score for India on the Global Hunger Index (GHI) – 28.5 (von Grebmer et al 2016). By contrast, Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa, all of whom share the BRICS high table with India, have a single-digit score. India’s neighbors, including Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, have better GHI scores as well. Although the country has managed to reduce instances of stunting among children by nearly half in the past decade compared to the previous one (IFPRI 2015), India remains home to one-third of the world's stunted children (UNICEF et al. 2016). It, therefore, falls into the ‘serious’ category in this year’s (2016) GHI.
Now, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is seeking to end hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. The tangible outcomes will be to eradicate instances of stunting among children and guarantee every citizen with access to adequate food throughout the year through sustainable food systems, the doubling of smallholder productivity and income, and zero food loss or waste.